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Tran, L.T., R.V. O’Neill, E.R. Smith, C.G. Knight 2007. Sensitivity Analysis of Aggregated Environmental Indices with a Case-Study of the Mid-Atlantic Region; Environmental Management 39:506-514.

Tran, L.T., R.V. O’Neill, E.R. Smith, P.F. Wagner, and M. Mehaffey. 2007. Watershed-Based Self- and Peer-Appraisal Indices for Integrated Environmental Assessment with a Case Study of the Mid-Atlantic Region; Ecological Indicators. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2007.03.004


Jones, K. B., A. C. Neale, T. G. Wade, J. D. Wickham, M. S. Nash, C. M. Edmonds, K. H. Riitters, E. R. Smith, and R. D. Van Remortel. 2006. Multiscale Relationships of Landscape Characteristics and Nitrogen Concentrations in Streams. Chapter 11, Jianguo, Wu, K. Bruce Jones, Li Harbin, Orie L. Loucks (ed.), Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology Methods and Application. Columbia University Press, Cambridge, NY, 205-224.

Lopez, R.D., D.T. Heggem, D. Sutton, T. Ehli, R. Van Remortel, E. Evanson, and L.A. Bice. 2006. Using Landscape Metrics to Develop Indicators of Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Condition. EPA/600/X-06/002. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 100pp.

Smith, E.R., P. McKinnis, L.T. Tran, R.V. O’Neill 2006. The Effects of Uncertainty on Estimating the Relative Environmental Quality of Watersheds across a Region; Landscape Ecology 21:225–231.

Tran, L.T., R.V. O’Neill, E.R. Smith 2006. A Generalized Distance Measure for Environmental Integrated Assessment; Landscape Ecology 21:469–476.


Greene, E.A., A.E. LaMotte, and K.A. Cullinan. 2005. Ground-water vulnerability to nitrate contamination at multiple thresholds in the Mid-Atlantic Region using spatial probability models. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5118. 24 pp. Online access at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3067/

Lopez, R.D., D.T. Heggem, J.P. Schneider, R. Van Remortel, E. Evanson, L.A. Bice, D.W. Ebert, J.G. Lyon, and R.W. Maichle. 2005. The Great Lakes Basin Landscape Ecology Metric Browser (v2.0). EPA/600/C-05/011. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Compact Disk and Online access at

Nash, M.S., D. Chaloud, and R.D. Lopez. 2005. Application of Canonical Correlation Analysis and Partial Least Square Analyses in Landscape Ecology. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/X-05/004. 82pp.

Tran, L.T., S.T. Jarnagin, J.D. Wickham, and C.G. Knight, C.G. 2005. Mapping thematic accuracy with fuzzy sets, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, vol. 71 (1), pp. 29-36.

Wardrop DH, Bishop JA, Easterling M, Hychka K, Myers WK, Patil GP, Taille C. 2005. Use of landscape and land use parameters for classification and characterization of watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic across five physiographic provinces. Environmental and Ecological Statistics. 12(2):209-223. (ReVA-funded STAR grant).


Beratan, K.K., S.J. Kabala, S.M. Loveless, P.J.S. Martin, and N.P.Spyke. 2004. Sustainability indicators as a communicative tool: building bridges in Pennsylvania. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:179-191.

Bradley, M. P., J. F. Paul, E. R. Smith, and E. A. Striz. Regional Vulnerability Assessment - a Special Issue of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Volume 94, Issue 1, Jun 2004

Bradley, M.P. and E.R. Smith. 2004. Using science to assess environmental vulnerabilities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:1-7.

Brooks, R.P., D.H. Wardrop, and J.A. Bishop. 2004. Assessing wetland condition on a watershed basis in the Mid-Atlantic region using synoptic land-cover maps. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:9-22. Online access of the ReVA funded STAR grant

Claggett, P.R., C.A. Jantz, S.J. Goetz, and C. Bisland. 2004. Assessing development pressure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: an evaluation of two land-use change models. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:129-146.

Coulston, J.W., Riitters, K.H., and G.C. Smith. 2004. A preliminary assessment of Montréal Process indicators of air pollution for the United States. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 95:57-74.

Hendricks, J. and J. Little. 2004. Thresholds for regional vulnerability analysis. Available online 001_final_stressor_threshold_table (PDF). (59 pp, 681 Kb)

Jackson, L.E., S.L. Bird, R.W. Matheny, R.V.O’Neill, D.White, K.C.Boesch, and J.L. Koviach. 2004. A regional approach to projecting land-use change and resulting ecological vulnerability. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:231-248.

Jarnagin, S. T., D. Jennings, and D. Ebert. 2004. A technique for assessing the accuracy of sub-pixel estimates extracted from landsat TM imagery. Chapter 19 (pp.269-280) in: Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment, Lunetta, R. S., and J. G. Lyon (Editors). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (320 p.).

Jennings, D., S.T. Jarnagin and D. Ebert. 2004. A modeling approach for determining watershed impervious surface area from National Land Cover Data 92. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 70(11):1295-1307. Online access at http://www.asprs.org/publications/pers/2004journal/november/abstracts.html#1295 Exit EPA Disclaimer

Kepner, W.G., D.J. Semmens, S.D. Bassett, D.A. Mouat, and D.C. Goodrich. 2004. Scenario analysis for the San Pedro River, analyzing hydrological consequences of a future environment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:115-127.

Lawler, J.J. and N.H. Schumaker. 2004. Evaluating habitat as a surrogate for population viability using a spatially explicit population model. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:85-100.

Locantore, N. W., Tran, L.T., O’Neill, R.V., McKinnis, P. W., Smith, E. R., and O’Connell, M. 2004. An overview of data integration methods for regional assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 94:249-261.

Lopez, R.D., C.M. Edmonds, D.T. Heggem, A.C. Neale, K.B. Jones, E.T. Slonecker, E. Jaworski, D. Garofalo, and D. Williams. 2004. Accuracy Assessments of Airborne Hyperspectral Data for Mapping Opportunistic Plant Species in Freshwater Coastal Wetlands in (R.S. Lunetta and J.G. Lyon, eds.) Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 304pp.

M. McDonald, R. Blair, D. Bolgrien, B. Brown, J. Dlugosz, S. Hale, S. Hedtke, D. Heggem, L. Jackson, K. Jones, B. Levinson, R. Linthurst, J. Messer, A. Olsen, J. Paul, S. Paulsen, J. Stoddard, K. Summers, and G. Veith. 2004. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. In: Wiersma, Bruce (ed.) Environmental Monitoring: a Reference Book. CRC Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Patil GP, Bishop J, Myers WL, Taillie C, Vraney R, Wardrop DH. 2004. Detection and delineation of critical areas using echelons and spatial scan statistics with synoptic cellular data. Environmental and Ecological Statistics. 11(2):139-164. (ReVA-funded STAR grant)

Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., and J.W. Coulston. 2004. A preliminary assessment of Montréal Process indicators of forest fragmentation for the United States. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 91:257-276

Schaberg, R., and R. C. Abt. 2004. Vulnerability of Mid-Atlantic forested watersheds to timber harvest disturbance. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:101-113.

Smith, E.R., O'Neill, R.V., Wickham, J.D., and Jones, K.B.2004. EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program: Using Monitoring Data and Model Results to Target Actions, In: Wiersma, Bruce (ed.) Environmental Monitoring: a Reference Text. CRC Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 480-498.

Tankersley, Jr., R.D., 2004. Migration of birds as an indicator of broad-scale environmental condition. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94: 55-67.

Tran, L.T., S.T. Jarnagin, C.G. Knight, and L. Baskaran (2004). Mapping spatial accuracy and estimating ecological indicators from thematic land cover maps using fuzzy set theory. In Lunetta, R.S., and J.G. Lyon (Editors), Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Tran, L.T., C.G Knight, R.V. O’Neill, and E.R. Smith, E.R. 2004. Integrated Environmental Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region with Analytical Network Process. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 94:263-277.

Tran, L.T., C.G. Knight, R.V. O’Neill, E.R. Smith, and M.l O’Connell. 2004. Self-organizing maps for integrated environmental assessment of the mid-Atlantic region. Environmental Management. 31(6):822-835.

Tran, L.T., C.G. Knight, R.V. O'Neill, E.R. Smith, K.H. Riitters, and James Wickham. 2004. Fuzzy decision analysis for integrated environmental vulnerability assessment of the mid-Atlantic region. Environmental Management. 29(6):845-859.

Wainger, L.A. and E.W. Price. 2004. Evaluating quality of life, economic vulnerabilities and drivers of ecosystem change. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:69-84.

Yuan, Lester. 2004. Using spatial interpolation to estimate stressor levels in unsampled streams. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:23-38.


Coulston, J.W., and K.H. Riitters. 2003. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics. Environmental Management. 31:764-773.

Edmonds, C.M., R.D. Lopez, D.T. Heggem, D.W. Williams, and K.L. Short. 2003. 15-Meter Landsat Analyses of the Mississippi River - Map Series from Headwaters to the Gulf of Mexico. EPA/600/R-03/084. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 22 x 40 in. maps with accompanying CD. Scale: 1 in. = 3 mi. 9pp.

King RS, Richardson CJ. Integrating bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: an approach to developing numerical water-quality criteria. Environmental Management 2003;31(6):795-809. (ReVA-funded STAR grant).

Lawler, J. J., D. White, and L. L. Master. 2003. Integrating representation and vulnerability: two approaches for identifying areas for conserving species diversity. Ecological Applications 13: 1762-1772.

Lawler, J. J., D. White, J. C. Sifneos, and L. L. Master. 2003. Rare species and the use of indicator groups for conservation planning. Conservation Biology 17: 875-882.

Lopez, R.D., D.T. Heggem, C.M. Edmonds, K.B. Jones, L.A. Bice, M. Hamilton, E. Evanson, C. Cross, and D.W. Ebert. 2003. A Landscape Atlas of Ecological Vulnerability: Arkansas’ White River Watershed and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley Ecoregion. EPA/600/R-03/057. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 302 pp.

Riitters K.H. and J. D. Wickham, 2003. How far to the nearest road? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1:125-129.

Riitters K.H., Coulston J.W., and J.D. Wickham, 2003. Localizing national fragmentation statistics with forest type maps. Journal of Forestry 101:18-22.

Smith, E.R., L.T. Tran, and R.V. O’Neill. 2003. Regional Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region: Evaluation of Integration Methods and Assessment Results. (PDF) (83 pp, 2.4MB) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-03/082.

Tankersley, Jr., R. and K. Orvis. 2003. Modeling the geography of migratory pathways and stopover habitats for neotropical migratory birds. Conservation Ecology 7(1): 7. Online access at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol7/iss1/art7/main.html. Exit EPA Disclaimer

Wade, T.G., Wickham, J.D., Nash, M.S., Neale, A.C., Riitters, K.H., and Jones, K.B. 2003. A comparison of vector and raster GIS methods for calculating landscape metrics used in environmental assessments. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 69(12): 1399-1405

Wade, T.G., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., and Jones, K.B. 2003. Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology. 7(2): 7. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss2/art7 Exit EPA Disclaimer

Wickham, J.D., Wade, T.G., Riitters, K.H., O’Neill, R.V., Smith, J.H., Smith, E.R., Jones, K.B, and Neale, A.C. 2003. Upstream-to-downstream changes in nutrient export risk. Landscape Ecology. 18:195-208.

Yuan, L.L, and Norton, S. B. 2003. Comparing responses of macroinvertebrate metrics to increasing stress. J. of the N. Amer. Benthological Soc. 22(2):308-322.


Edmonds, C. M., D. H. Heggem, K. B. Jones, and E. Evanston, 2002. Mid-Atlantic Region Land Use/Land Cover Change Data Set 1970s to 1990s CD Data Browser, EPA 600/R-02/035, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Online access at

Jennings D.B. and S.T. Jarnagin. 2002. Changes in anthropogenic impervious surfaces, precipitation and daily streamflow discharge: a historical perspective in a mid-Atlantic sub-watershed. Landscape Ecology, 17(5):471-489. Online access at http://www.kluweronline.com/issn/0921-2973 Exit EPA Disclaimer

Lopez, R.D., C.B. Davis, and M.S. Fennessy. 2002. Ecological relationships between landscape change and plant guilds in depressional wetlands. Landscape Ecology. 17(1): 43-56.

Lopez, R.D. and M.S. Fennessy. 2002. Using the floristic quality assessment index (FQAI) in wetlands as a biological indicator of landscape condition along a gradient of human influence. Ecological Applications. 12(2): 487-497.

Mehaffey, M.H., Nash, M.S.,Wade, T.G., Edmonds, C.M., Ebert, D.W., Jones, K.B., and A. Rager. 2002. New York City’s Water Supply - A 25 Year Landscape Analysis of the Catskill/Delaware Watersheds, EPA\600\R-01\075.

Patil G.P., R.P. Brooks, W.L. Myers, and C. Taillie. 2002. Multiscale advanced raster map analysis system for measuring ecosystem health at the landscape scale: A novel synergistic consortium initiative. In Managing for Healthy Ecosystems, D. Rapport, W. Lasley, D. Rolston, O. Nielsen, C. Qualset, and A. Damania. CRC Press/Lewis Publ. (In press.) (ReVA-funded STAR grant).

Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., O'Neill, R.V., Jones, K.B., Smith, E.R., Coulston, J.W., Wade, T.G., and J.H. Smith. 2002. Fragmentation of continental United States forests. Ecosystems 5:815-822.

Tran, L.T., and Duckstein, L. (2002). Comparison of fuzzy numbers using a fuzzy distance measure. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 130(3):331-341.

Tran, L.T., and Duckstein, L. (2002). Multiobjective fuzzy regression with central tendency and possibilistic properties. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 130(1):21-31.

Tran, L.T., Wickham, J.D., Jarnagin, S.T., and Knight, C.G. 2002. Mapping Spatial Thematic Accuracy with Fuzzy Sets. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 71(1) 29-36. U.S. EPA, 2000. Projecting Land-Use Change: A Summary of Models for Assessing the Effects of Community Growth and Change on Land-Use Patterns. EPA/600/R-00/098. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH. 260 pp.

Wickham, J.D., O’Neill, R.V., Riitters, K.H., Smith, E.R., Wade, T.G., and Jones, K.B. 2002. Geographic targeting of nutrient export due to future urbanization. Ecological Applications. 12(1):93-106.

Wickham, J.D. and T.G. Wade. 2002. Watershed level risk assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus export. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 37 (1-3, SI): 15-24, December, 2002.


Hess, G.R., S.S. Daley, B.K. Dennison, S.R. Lubkin, R.P. McGuinn,V.Z. Morin, K.M. Potter, R.E. Savage, W.G. Shelton, C.M. Snow, B.M. Wrege. Summer 2001. Just what is sprawl, anyway? Carolina Planning.

Jones, K.B., Neale, A.C., Nash, M.S., VanRemortel, R.D., Wickham, J.D., Riitters, K.H., and R.V. O'Neill. 2001. Predicting nutrient and sediment loadings to streams from landscape metrics: a multiple watershed study from the United States mid-Atlantic region. Landscape Ecology 16:301-312

Jones, K. Bruce, Anne C.Neale, Timothy G. Wade, James D. Wickham, Chad L. Cross, Curtis Edmonds, Thomas Loveland, Maliha Nash, Kurt H. Riitters, and Elizabeth R. Smith. 2001. The consequences of landscape change on ecological resources: an assessment of the United States mid- Atlantic region, 1973-1993. Ecosystem Health. 7:229-242.

McCormick, F.H, R.M. Hughes, P.R. Kaufmann, A.T. Herlihy, D.V. Peck and J.L. Stoddard. 2001. Development of an index of biotic integrity for the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Assessment Project. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130: 857-877.

Patil GP, Brooks RP, Myers WL, Rapport DJ, Taillie C. Ecosystem health and its measurement at landscape scale: towards the next generation of quantitative assessments. Ecosystem Health 2001;7(4):307-316. (ReVA-funded STAR grant)

Smith, E.R., R.V. O’Neill, J.D. Wickham, K.B.Jones, L.E.Jackson, J.V.Kilaru, and R.J. Reuter. 2001. The US EPA’s Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program: A Research Strategy for 2001-2006. (PDF) (52 pp, 751K) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency., Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-01/008.

Smith, J.H., Wickham, J.D., Norton, D.J., Wade, T.G., and Jones, K.B. 2001. Utilization of landscape indicators to model pathogen impaired waters. Journal of the American Water Resources Association Vol. 37, No. 4, pp.805-814.

Wickham, J.D., Riitters, K.H., O'Neill, R.V., Reckhow, K.H., Wade, T.G., and K.B. Jones. 2001. Land cover as a framework for assessing risk of water pollution. Water Resources Journal ST/ESCAP/Ser.C/210:39-46. (Reprinted from the 2000 JAWRA)


Carpenter, D.E. and Lunetta, R.S. 2000. Challenges in forecasting the long-term impacts of multiple stressors on a mid-Atlantic region. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19(4): 1076-1081.

Goodrich, D., Kepner, W.G., Hernandez, M., Miller, S., Goff, B., Jones, K.B., Edmonds, C.M., Wade, T.G., Ebert, D.W., and Heggem, D.T. February, 2000. Landscape indicator interface with hydrologic models research plan. (PDF) (62 pp, 1.6M) Publication No. EPA/600/R- 00/042. Las Vegas, NV: U.S. EPA.

Jones, K. B., Neale, A.C., Nash, M.S., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D, O’Neill, R.V., Van Remortel, R.D. 2000. Landscape correlates of breeding bird richness across the United States Mid-Atlantic Region. J. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 63:159-174.

Lunetta, et al. 2000. Mid-Atlantic Stressor Profile Atlas. (PDF) (248 pp, 13.7M) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-99/003.

McCormick, F.H., Peck, D.V., and Larsen, D.P. 2000. Comparison of geographic classification schemes for Mid-Atlantic stream fish assemblages. J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 19(3):385-404

Mehaffey, M.H., Wade, T.G., Nash, M.S., and Edmonds, C.M. 2000. Analysis of landscape and water quality in the New York Catskill-Delaware Watershed. Proceedings of the Ecosystem Health Conference, Sacramento, California.

O’Neill, RV. 2000. Ecosystems on the Landscape: The role of space in Ecosystem Theory. Pp. 447- 463. IN S. E. Jorgenson and F. Muller (eds.) Handbook of Ecosystem Theories and Management. Lewis Publ. NY.

O’Neill, RV. and Kahn, J.R. 2000. Homo economus as a keystone Species. Bioscience 50:333-337.

Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., O'Neill, R.V., Jones, K.B., and E.R. Smith. 2000. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology 4(2):3. Online access at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol4/iss2/art3/. Exit EPA Disclaimer

Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., Vogelmann, J.E., and Jones, K.B. 2000. National land-cover pattern data. Ecology, 81(2): 604 and Ecological Archives [esa.sdsc.edu/Archives] E081-004 .

Smith, E.R. 2000. An overview of EPA’s Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 64:9-15.

Wickham, J.D., O’Neill, R.V., and Jones, K.B. 2000. A geography of ecosystem vulnerability. Landscape Ecology, 15(6):495-504.

Wickham, J.D., O’Neill, R.V., Jones, K.B. 2000. Forest fragmentation as an economic indicator. Landscape Ecology, 15(2):171-179.

Wickham, J.D., Riitters, K.H., O’Neill, R.V., Reckhow, K.H., Wade, T.G., and Jones, K.B. 2000. Land cover as a framework for assessing risk of water pollution. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 36:1417-1422.


Boughton, D.A., Smith E.R. and O’Neill R.V. 1999. Regional vulnerability: a conceptual framework. Ecosystem Health. 5(4):312-322.

Dale, V.H. and O’Neill, R.V. 1999. Tools to Characterize the Environmental Setting. pp62-90. in Dale, V.H. and M.R. English (eds.) Tools to Aid Environmental Decision Making. Springer-Verlag, NY.

Jones, K.B., Wade, T.G., Wickham, J.D., Riitters, K.H., and Edmonds, C.M. 1999. Characterizing forest fragmentation and vulnerability based on patch characteristics. Pp. 359-366, in Aguirre-Bravo, C., and Franco, C.R. (eds.), North American Science Symposium: Toward a Unified Framework for Inventorying and Monitoring Forest Ecosystem Resources. U.S. Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-12, Fort Collins, Colorado. 533 p.

Kahn, J.R. and O’Neill, RV. 1999. Ecological interaction as a source of economic irreversibility. Southern Economic Journal 66:391-402.

O’Neill, R.V., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., and K.B. Jones. 1999. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment. Ecosystem Health 5:225-233.

O’Neill, R.V. 1999. Recovery in Complex Ecosystems. J. Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 6:181-187.

Wade, T.G., Wickham, J.D., and Bradford, D.F. 1999. Accuracy of road density estimates derived from USGS DLG data for use in environmental applications. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 65:1419-1425.

Wickham, J. D., Jones, K.B., Riitters, K.H., Wade, T.G., O’Neill, R.V. 1999. Transitions in forest fragmentation: Implications for restoration opportunities at regional scales. Landscape Ecology 14:137-145.

Wickham, J. D., Jones, K.B., Riitters, K.H., O’Neill, R.V., Tankersley, R.D., Smith, E.R., Neale, A.C., Chaloud, D.J. 1999. An integrated environmental assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region. Environmental Management, 24(4)553-560.


Wade, T.G., Wickham, J.D., and Kepner, W.G. 1995. Using GIS and a Graphical User Interface to Model Land Degradation. Geo Info Systems, February Pp 38-42.


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