Clear Skies in West Virginia
Highlights of Clear Skies in West Virginia
- West Virginia sources would reduce emissions of SO2 by 69%,
NOx by 77%, and mercury by 56% by 2020 due to Clear Skies.
- The health benefits in West Virginia would total $1.7 billion
annually ($330 million under the alternative estimate) and include
approximately 200 fewer premature deaths (100 under the alternative
estimate) and 400 fewer hospitalizations/emergency room visits
- In addition, West Virginia would receive environmental benefits including improvements in visibility and reductions in acid and mercury deposition.
- Clear Skies does not significantly impact electricity prices. With or without Clear Skies, electricity prices in the electricity supply region that includes West Virginia are expected to remain below 2000 national average prices.
Clear Skies: An Innovative Approach to Improving Human Health and the Environment
Why Clear Skies?
- Air quality has improved, but serious concerns persist
- West Virginias citizens suffer ill effects from air
pollution, including asthma attacks and premature death
- West Virginias citizens suffer ill effects from air pollution, including asthma attacks and premature death
- Electricity generation sector remains a major emissions source
- Very cost-effective to control the power sector, relative to other sources
- Sources are concerned about upcoming complex and burdensome
Advantages of the Clear Skies Approach
- Guarantees significant nationwide emissions reductions
beginning years before full implementation
- West Virginia sources would substantially reduce emissions of SO2, NOx, and mercury
- Delivers dramatic progress towards achievement of critical
health and environmental goals
- Uses proven, market-based flexible approach with incentives
- Recognizes environmental needs as well as industry constraints, allowing industry to better manage its operations and finances while lowering risks to the public
- Sources are projected to install pollution controls to enable
continued reliance on coal
- Increases certainty across the board for industry, regulators, and consumers
Under Current Clean Air Act Power Plants Would Face a Complex Set of Requirements
Clear Skies Sets a Firm Timeline for Emission Reductions
|The existing Title IV SO2 cap-and-trade program provides an incentive and a mechanism to begin reductions upon enactment of Clear Skies years before regulatory action under the current Act.|
2004: The NOx SIP call (summertime NOx cap in 19 Eastern States + D.C.)
2008: Clear Skies NOx Phase I (2.1 million ton annual cap assigned to two Zones with trading programs)
- Clear Skies Hg Phase I (26 ton annual cap with a national trading program)
- SO2 Phase I (4.5 million ton annual cap with a national trading program)
- Clear Skies NOx Phase II (1.7 million ton annual cap assigned to two Zones with trading programs)
- Clear Skies Hg Phase II (15 ton annual cap with a national trading program)
- Clear Skies SO2 Phase II (3.0 million ton annual cap with a national trading program)
Emissions in West Virginia under Clear Skies
Emissions in West Virginia (2020) would be significantly reduced from
Emissions: Current (2000) and Existing Clean Air Act Regulations (base case*) vs. Clear Skies in West Virginia in 2010 and 2020
Note: The base case using IPM includes Title IV, the NOx SIP Call, NSR settlements, and state-specific caps in CT, MA, MO, NC, NH, TX, and WI. It does not include mercury MACT in 2007 or any other potential future regulations to implement the current air quality standards or other parts of the Clean Air Act. Base case emissions in 2020 will likely be lower due to state and federal regulatory actions that have not yet been promulgated.
Clear Skies Health Benefits in West Virginia
|By 2020, West Virginia would receive approximately $1.7 billion in annual health benefits from reductions in fine particle and ozone concentrations alone due to Clear Skies.|
Improve Public Health
- Reduced ozone and fine particle exposure by 2020 would result
in public health benefits of:
- approximately 200 fewer premature deaths each year (see note 1)
- approximately 100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis each year
- approximately 300 fewer nonfatal heart attacks each year
- approximately 400 fewer hospital and emergency room visits each year
- approximately 20,000 fewer days workers are out sick due to respiratory symptoms each year
- approximately 1,200 fewer school absences each year
- Reduced mercury emissions would reduce exposure to mercury through consumption of contaminated fish, resulting in additional, unquantified benefits for those who eat fish from West Virginias lakes and streams.
Counties Projected to Remain Out of Attainment with the PM2.5 and Ozone Standards in West Virginia
Note: Based on 1999-2001 data of counties with monitors that have three years of complete data. The base case includes Title IV, the NOx SIP Call, the Tier II, Heavy-Duty Diesel, and Nonroad Diesel rules, final NSR settlements as of early spring 2003, and state-specific caps in CT, MA, MO, NC, NH, TX, and WI. It does not include mercury MACT or any other potential future regulations to implement the current ambient air quality standards or other parts of the Clean Air Act.
Clear Skies Would Help West Virginia Meet Air Quality Standards
- Currently there are 8 counties exceeding the annual fine particle
standards and 3 counties exceeding the 8-hour ozone standard.
- Several of these counties are expected to be brought into attainment with the fine particle standards under existing programs.
- All of these counties are expected to be brought into attainment
with the ozone standard under existing programs.
- Clear Skies would significantly improve air quality in West
what is expected from existing programs.
- By 2010, Clear Skies would bring all 6 remaining nonattainment
counties (Hancock, Brooke, Marshall, Wood, Kanawha, and Cabell
-- population approximately 500,000) into attainment with
the annual fine particle standards.
- By 2010, Clear Skies would bring all 6 remaining nonattainment counties (Hancock, Brooke, Marshall, Wood, Kanawha, and Cabell -- population approximately 500,000) into attainment with the annual fine particle standards.
- In addition, Clear Skies would reduce ozone and fine particle concentrations in counties attaining the standard throughout the state.
Note: Based on 1999-2001 data of counties with monitors that have three years of complete data.
SO2 and NOx Emissions Reductions under Clear Skies
|Emissions in West Virginia and surrounding states would decrease considerably. These emission reductions would make it much easier for West Virginia to maintain compliance with the national air quality standards.|
Note: The base case using IPM includes Title IV, the NOx SIP Call, NSR settlements, and state-specific caps in CT, MA, MO, NC, NH, TX, and WI. It does not include mercury MACT in 2007 or any other potential future regulations to implement the current ambient air quality standards or other parts of the Clean Air Act. Base case emissions in 2020 will likely be lower due to state and federal regulatory actions that have not yet been promulgated. Emissions projected for new units are not reflected.
Clear Skies Environmental Benefits in West Virginia
Clear Skies Would Provide Substantial Environmental Benefits in West Virginia
In comparison to existing programs,
- Visibility would improve perceptibly, resulting in $18 million in benefits for West Virginia residents who visit national parks nationwide. Dolly Sods and Otter Creek Wilderness Areas would receive $3 million in visibility benefits.
- Sulfur deposition, a primary cause of acid rain, would decrease by up to 60% across nearly the entire state, providing greater protection for acid-sensitive streams.
- Nitrogen deposition, another significant contributor to acid rain, as well as a cause of damage in nitrogen-sensitive forests, would decrease by up to 20%.
- Mercury deposition would decrease by 5-15% across much of the state, and by up to 60% in some western portions of the state.*
Electricity Generation in West Virginia under Clear Skies
Current and Projected Generation by Fuel Type in West Virginia under Clear Skies (GWh)
West Virginia's sources are projected to reduce their emissions through the installation of emission controls, rather than through a switch from coal to natural gas.
West Virginias electricity growth is projected to be met by increases in gas-fired and coal-fired generation. Clear Skies does not significantly alter this projection.
Emission Controls in West Virginia under Clear Skies
Under Clear Skies by 2020...
Units in West Virginia Projected to Be Retrofitted Due to Clear Skies by 2020
|JOHN E AMOS||1||Scrubber*|
|JOHN E AMOS||2||Scrubber*|
|JOHN E AMOS||3||Scrubber*|
|* Retrofit was installed under Clear Skies by 2010|
The major generation companies in West Virginia include:
Total coal-fired capacity in West Virginia is projected to
be 14,339 MW in 2010
1. Retrofits and total coal-fired capacity apply to coal units greater than 25 MW.
2. Albright units 1 & 2 are projected to be removed from operation by 2005 with Clear Skies due to excess gas-fired capacity in the marketplace, unless otherwise needed for voltage purposes. The recent overbuild of gas-fired generation reduces the need for less efficient units operating at lower capacity factors. These units are inefficient compared to other coal-fired plants and newer gas-fired generation. Less conservative assumptions regarding natural gas prices or electricity demand would create a greater incentive to keep these units operational.
Electricity Prices in West Virginia under Clear Skies