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Clear Skies

Economic and Other Impacts

Information provided for informational purposes onlyNote: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.
Unless otherwise noted, the data presented throughout this Web site reflect EPA’s 2003 modeling and analysis of the Clear Skies Act of 2003. Clear Skies legislation was intended to create a mandatory program that would dramatically reduce power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and mercury by setting a national cap on each pollutant. The Clear Skies bill was proposed in response to a growing need for an emission reduction plan that will protect human health and the environment while providing regulatory certainty to the industry. The proposed legislation for air regulation never moved out of the Senate Environment and Public Works committee in 2005 and was therefore never enacted.

You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, to view some of the files on this page. See EPA's PDF page to learn more about PDF, and for a link to the free Acrobat Reader.

Using a variety of models and other analytical tools, EPA has evaluated the compliance costs and related impacts of the emissions caps on affected sources.

The annual compliance costs are projected to be approximately $3.69 billion in 2010 and $6.49 billion in 2020. Related impacts -- including detailed information on pollution control retrofits, factors affecting the installation of controls, marginal costs, electricity prices, average emissions rates, generation, fuel use, and coal production -- are described in the files below.

2003 Technical Support Package for Clear Skies:


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