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Ozone Implementation

Implementation of Revised Air Quality Standards
for Ozone and Particulate Matter

Information provided for informational purposes onlyNote: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.

Federal Register Document

[Federal Register: July 18, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 138)]
[Presidential Documents]
[Page 38421-38432]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]

                        Presidential Documents


Title 3--
The President

[[Page 38421]]

                Memorandum of July 16, 1997

                Implementation of Revised Air Quality Standards
                for Ozone and Particulate Matter

                Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental
                Protection Agency

                I have approved the issuance of new air quality
                standards to provide important new health protection
                for all Americans by further controlling pollution from
                ozone and particulate matter. These new standards
                promise to improve the lives of millions of Americans
                in coming years.

                Consistent with my Administration's approach to
                regulatory decision making, I also want to ensure that
                these new standards are implemented in a common sense,
                cost-effective manner. It is critically important that
                these standards be implemented in the most flexible,
                reasonable, and least burdensome manner, and that the
                Federal Government work with State and local
                governments and other interested parties to this end.

                I have determined that there are certain essential
                elements of an approach to implementation that will
                accomplish these goals. I direct you to use the
                following elements when implementing the new air
                quality standards:

                1. Implementation of the air quality standards is to be
                carried out to maximize common sense, flexibility, and
                cost effectiveness;

                2. Implementation shall ensure that the Nation
                continues its progress toward cleaner air by respecting
                the agreements already made by States, communities, and
                businesses to clean up the air, and by avoiding
                additional burdens with respect to the beneficial
                measures already underway in many areas. Implementation
                also shall be structured to reward State and local
                governments that take early action to provide clean air
                to their residents; and to respond to the fact that
                pollution travels hundreds of miles and crosses many
                State lines;

                3. Implementation shall ensure that the Environmental
                Protection Agency (``Agency'') completes its next
                periodic review of particulate matter, including review
                by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, within
                5 years of issuance of the new standards, as
                contemplated by the Clean Air Act. Thus, by July 2002,
                the Agency will have determined, based on data
                available from its review, whether to revise or
                maintain the standards. This determination will have
                been made before any areas have been designated as
                ``nonattainment'' under the PM2.5 standards
                and before imposition of any new controls related to
                the PM2.5 standards; and

                4. Implementation is to be accomplished with the
                minimum amount of paperwork and shall seek to reduce
                current paperwork requirements wherever possible.

[[Page 38422]]

                Excellent preliminary work on the strategy for carrying
                out these implementation principles has been
                accomplished by an interagency Administration group and
                I commend that group for these important efforts. The
                group's work is set out in the attached plan, which is
                hereby incorporated by reference.

                In order for the implementation of these standards to
                proceed in accordance with the goals I have
                established, I hereby direct you, in consultation with
                all affected agencies and parties, to undertake the
                steps appropriate under law to carry out the attached
                plan and to complete all necessary guidance and
                rulemaking no later than December 31, 1998.

                This memorandum is for the purposes of internal
                Administration management only, and is not judicially

                You are authorized and directed to publish this
                determination and plan in the Federal Register.

                    (Presidential Sig.)

                THE WHITE HOUSE

                    Washington, July 16, 1997.

[[Page 38423]]

                Implementation Plan for Revised Air Quality Standards

                An interagency Administration group has discussed and
                evaluated approaches for the common sense, flexible,
                and cost effective implementation of the revised
                National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for
                ozone and particulate matter (PM). This document
                reflects the preliminary work by that group on a
                strategy for implementing these health-based standards
                consistent with the principles discussed by President
                Clinton in his announcement of the standards. The
                Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will continue to
                work with other Federal agencies, State and local
                governments, small businesses, industry, and
                environmental and public health groups to fully develop
                and implement this strategy.

                This implementation plan provides a road map for areas
                to attain the standards and protect public health
                without sacrificing economic growth. The goals of the
                plan are to: 1) maintain the progress currently being
                made toward cleaner air and respect the agreements and
                technological progress already made by communities and
                businesses to pursue clean air; 2) reward State and
                local governments and businesses that take early action
                to reduce air pollution levels through cost-effective
                approaches; 3) respond to the fact that pollution can
                travel hundreds of miles and cross many State lines; 4)
                work with the States to develop control programs which
                employ regulatory flexibility to minimize economic
                impacts on businesses large and small to the greatest
                possible degree consistent with public health
                protection; 5) minimize planning and regulatory burdens
                for State and local governments and businesses where
                air quality problems are regional, not local, in
                nature; 6) ensure that air quality planning and related
                Federal, State, and local planning are coordinated; and
                7) recognize the substantial lead time necessary for
                State and local governments and businesses to plan for
                and meet standards for a new indicator of PM.

                The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires the EPA to set air
                quality standards to protect the public health and the
                environment without consideration of costs. The 1997
                revisions to the NAAQS for ground level ozone and PM
                fulfill this requirement. However, the Act recognizes
                that the EPA and the States must work together to
                develop cost-effective, flexible, and fair
                implementation plans if the standards are to be met as
                expeditiously as practicable.

                There are a number of important linkages between these
                pollutants. There is also a linkage between these
                pollutants and their precursors and regional haze
                problems. Promulgation of the two standards
                simultaneously provides a more complete description of
                the health and environmental effects associated with
                two of the major components of air pollution. It can
                help States and local areas better manage their air
                quality by focusing on the common precursors of both
                pollutants and provides the opportunity to work jointly
                with industry to address common sources of multiple air
                pollutants in a comprehensive manner. This will lead to
                more effective and efficient protection of public
                health and the environment.

                In addition to the interagency process, the EPA has
                been soliciting other input. While the review of the
                ozone and PM NAAQS was underway, the EPA convened a
                group of air quality experts representing industry,
                environmental, and public health groups; State and
                local governments; other Federal agencies; and academia
                under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA). This
                group was charged by the Administrator of the EPA to
                develop innovative, flexible, and cost-effective
                implementation strategies that utilize a mix of control
                measures to address ozone, PM, and regional haze. This
                group will continue working with the EPA to further
                develop this strategy.

                In addition, all Federal agencies will continue to do
                their part in carrying out the Federal responsibilities
                in the State/Federal partnership that has been so
                successful in improving air quality in the United
                States. In addition, the EPA, in partnership with the
                other Federal agencies, has developed

[[Page 38424]]

                an interagency research program that is described in
                Appendix 1 for the coordination of future research on
                both ground level ozone and PM.

                Implementation of Ozone Standard

                Phase-out of 1-hour standard

                The revised ozone standard is intended to replace the
                current 1-hour standard with an 8-hour standard.
                However, the 1-hour standard will continue to apply to
                areas not attaining it for an interim period to ensure
                an effective transition to the new 8-hour standard.

                Subpart 2 of part D of Title I of the CAA addresses the
                requirements for different classifications of
                nonattainment areas that do not meet the current 1-hour
                standard (i.e., marginal, moderate, serious, and
                severe). These requirements include such items as
                mandatory control measures, annual rate of progress
                requirements for emission reductions, and offset ratios
                for the emissions from new or modified stationary
                sources. These requirements have contributed
                significantly to the improvements in air quality since
                1990. Although the EPA initially offered an
                interpretation of the CAA in the proposed Interim
                Implementation Policy (IIP) (61 FR 65764, December 13,
                1996) under which the provisions of Subpart 2 would not
                apply to existing ozone nonattainment areas once a new
                ozone NAAQS is promulgated, the EPA has reconsidered
                that interpretation after receiving comments on the
                proposed IIP. Based on EPA's legal review, the Agency
                has concluded that Subpart 2 should continue to apply
                as a matter of law for the purpose of achieving
                attainment of the current 1-hour standard. Once an area
                attains the 1-hour standard, those provisions will no
                longer apply and the area's implementation of the new
                8-hour standard would be governed only by the
                provisions of Subpart 1 of Part D of Title I.

                To streamline the process and minimize the burden on
                existing nonattainment areas, the 1-hour standard will
                cease to apply to an area upon a determination by the
                EPA that an area has attained air quality that meets
                the 1-hour standard. In light of the implementation of
                the new 8-hour standard, which is more stringent than
                the existing 1-hour standard, States will not have to
                prepare maintenance plans for those areas that attain
                the 1-hour standard. Within 90 days, the EPA will
                publish an action identifying existing nonattainment
                areas and maintenance areas to which the 1-hour
                standard will cease to apply because they have attained
                the 1-hour standard.

                For areas where the air quality does not currently
                attain the 1-hour standard, the 1-hour standard will
                continue in effect. The provisions of Subpart 2 would
                also apply to designated nonattainment areas until such
                time as each area has air quality meeting the 1-hour
                standard. At that time, the EPA will take action so
                that the 1-hour standard no longer applies to such
                areas. In any event, the ``bump-up'' provisions of
                Subpart 2, which require areas not attaining the
                standard by the applicable attainment date to be
                reclassified to the next higher classification, will
                not be triggered by the failure of any area to meet the
                new 8-hour standard. The purpose of retaining the
                current standard is to ensure a smooth legal and
                practical transition to the new standard.

                Implementation of New 8-hour Ozone standard

                This section discusses the general timeline for
                implementing the 8-hour standard, the importance of
                regional approaches to address ozone and options for
                classifying and designating areas relative to the 8-
                hour ozone NAAQS.

                General Timeline

                Following promulgation of a revised NAAQS, the Clean
                Air Act provides up to 3 years for State governors to
                recommend and the EPA to designate areas according to
                their most recent air quality. In addition, States will
                have up to 3 years from designation to develop and
                submit State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to provide for
                attainment of the new standard. Under

[[Page 38425]]

                this approach, areas would be designated as
                nonattainment for the 8-hour standard by 2000 and would
                submit their nonattainment SIPs by 2003. The Act allows
                up to 10 years plus two 1-year extensions from the date
                of designation for areas to attain the revised NAAQS.

                Regional Strategy

                Ozone is a pollutant that travels great distances and
                it is increasingly clear that it must be addressed as a
                regional problem. For the past 2 years the EPA has been
                working with the 37 most eastern States through the
                Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) in the belief
                that reducing interstate pollution will help all areas
                in the OTAG region attain the NAAQS. A regional
                approach can reduce compliance costs and allow many
                areas to avoid most traditional nonattainment planning
                requirements. The OTAG was sponsored by the
                Environmental Council of States, with the objective of
                evaluating ozone transport and recommending strategies
                for mitigating interstate pollution. The OTAG completed
                its work in June 1997 and forwarded recommendations to
                the EPA. Based on these recommendations, in September
                1997, the EPA will propose a rule requiring States in
                the OTAG region that are significantly contributing to
                nonattainment or interfering with maintenance of
                attainment in downwind States to submit SIPs to reduce
                their interstate pollution. The EPA will issue the
                final rule by September 1998.

                If the States choose to establish a regional emission
                cap-and-trade system, modeled on the current acid rain
                program, reductions can be obtained at a lower cost.
                The EPA will encourage and assist the States to develop
                and implement such a program. Most important, based on
                the EPA's review of the latest modeling, a regional
                approach, coupled with the implementation of other
                already existing State and Federal Clean Air Act
                requirements, will allow the vast majority of areas
                that currently meet the 1-hour standard but would not
                otherwise meet the new 8-hour standard to achieve
                healthful air quality without additional local

                Areas in the OTAG region that would exceed the new
                standard after the adoption of the regional strategy,
                including areas that do not meet the current 1-hour
                standard, will benefit as well because the regional
                NOX program will reduce the extent of
                additional local measures needed to achieve the 8-hour
                standard. In many cases these regional reductions may
                be adequate to meet CAA progress requirements for a
                number of years, allowing areas to defer additional
                local controls.

                Transitional Classification

                For areas that attain the 1-hour standard but not the
                new 8-hour standard, the EPA will follow a flexible
                implementation approach that encourages cleaner air
                sooner, responds to the fact that ozone is a regional
                as well as local problem, and eliminates unnecessary
                planning and regulatory burdens for State and local
                governments. A primary element of the plan will be the
                establishment under Section 172(a)(1) of the CAA of a
                special ``transitional'' classification for areas that
                participate in a regional strategy and/or that opt to
                submit early plans addressing the new 8-hour standard.
                Because many areas will need little or no additional
                new local emission reductions to reach attainment,
                beyond those reductions that will be achieved through
                the regional control strategy, and will come into
                attainment earlier than otherwise required, the EPA
                will exercise its discretion under the law to eliminate
                unnecessary local planning requirements for such areas.
                The EPA will revise its rules for new source review
                (NSR) and conformity so that States will be able to
                comply with only minor revisions to their existing
                programs in areas classified as transitional. During
                this rulemaking, the EPA will also reexamine the NSR
                requirements applicable to existing nonattainment
                areas, in order to deal with issues of fairness among
                existing and new nonattainment areas. The transitional
                classification will be available for any area attaining
                the 1-hour standard but not attaining the 8-hour
                standard as of the time the EPA promulgates
                designations for the 8-hour

[[Page 38426]]

                standard. Areas will follow the approaches described
                below based on their status.

                (1) Areas attaining the 1-hour standard, but not
                attaining the 8-hour standard, that would attain the 8-
                hour standard through the implementation of the
                regional NOX transport strategy for the

                Based on the OTAG analyses, areas in the OTAG region
                that can reach attainment through implementation of the
                regional transport strategy would not be required to
                adopt and implement additional local measures. When the
                EPA designates these areas under section 107(d), it
                will place them in the new transitional classification
                if they would attain the standard through
                implementation of the regional transport strategy and
                are in a State that by 2000 submits an implementation
                plan that includes control measures to achieve the
                emission reductions required by the EPA's rule for
                States in the OTAG region. This is 3 years earlier than
                an attainment SIP would otherwise be required. The EPA
                anticipates that it will be able to determine whether
                such areas will attain based on the OTAG and other
                regional modeling and that no additional local modeling
                would be required.

                (2) Areas attaining the 1-hour standard but not
                attaining the 8-hour standard for which a regional
                transport strategy is not sufficient for attainment of
                the 8-hour standard.

                To encourage early planning and attainment for the 8-
                hour standard, the EPA will make the transitional
                classification available to areas not attaining the 8-
                hour standard that will need additional local measures
                beyond the regional transport strategy, as well as to
                areas that are not affected by the regional transport
                strategy, provided they meet certain criteria. To
                receive the transitional classification, these areas
                must submit an attainment SIP prior to the designation
                and classification process in 2000. The SIP must
                demonstrate attainment of the 8-hour standard and
                provide for the implementation of the necessary
                emissions reductions on the same time schedule as the
                regional transport reductions. The EPA will work with
                affected areas to develop a streamlined attainment
                demonstration. By submitting these attainment plans
                earlier than would have otherwise been required, these
                areas would be eligible for the transitional
                classification and its benefits and would achieve
                cleaner air much sooner than otherwise required.

                (3) Areas not attaining the 1-hour standard and not
                attaining the 8-hour standard

                The majority of areas not attaining the 1-hour standard
                have made substantial progress in evaluating their air
                quality problems and developing plans to reduce
                emissions of ozone-causing pollutants. These areas will
                be eligible for the transitional classification
                provided that they attain the 1-hour standard by the
                year 2000 and comply with the appropriate provisions of
                section (1) or (2) above depending upon which
                conditions they meet.

                Areas not Eligible for the Transitional Classification

                For these areas, their work on planning and control
                programs to meet the 1-hour standard by their current
                attainment date (e.g., 2005 for Philadelphia and 2007
                for Chicago) will take them a long way toward meeting
                the 8-hour standard. While the additional local
                reductions that they will need to achieve the 8-hour
                standard must occur prior to their 8-hour attainment
                date (e.g., 2010), for virtually all areas the
                additional reductions needed to achieve the 8-hour
                standard can occur after the 1-hour attainment date.
                This approach allows them to make continued progress
                toward attaining the 8-hour standard throughout the
                entire period without requiring new additional local
                controls for attaining the 8-hour standard until the 1-
                hour standard is attained. These areas, however, will
                need to submit an implementation plan within 3 years of
                designation as nonattainment for the new standard for
                achieving the 8-hour standard. Such a plan can rely in
                large part on measures needed to attain the 1-hour
                standard. For virtually all of these areas, no
                additional local control measures beyond those needed
                to meet the requirements of Subpart 2 and needed in
                response to the regional

[[Page 38427]]

                transport strategy would be required to be implemented
                prior to their applicable attainment date for the 1-
                hour standard. Nonattainment areas that do not attain
                the 1-hour standard by their attainment date would
                continue to make progress in accordance with the
                requirements of Subpart 2; the control measures needed
                to meet the progress requirements under Subpart 2 would
                generally be sufficient for meeting the control measure
                and progress requirements of Subpart 1 as well.

                Implementation of Particulate Matter Standards

                As required under the Act, within the next 5 years the
                EPA will complete the next periodic review of the PM
                criteria and standards, including review by the CASAC.
                As with all NAAQS reviews, the purpose is to update the
                pertinent scientific and technical information and to
                determine whether it is appropriate to revise the
                standards in order to protect the public health with an
                adequate margin of safety or to protect the public
                welfare. Although the EPA has concluded that the
                current scientific knowledge provides a strong basis
                for the revised PM10 and new PM2.5
                standards, there remain scientific uncertainties
                associated with the health and environmental effects of
                PM and the means of reducing them.

                The following steps discussed below and in Appendix 1,
                Interagency Research Program, will address these
                concerns. First, recognizing the importance of
                developing a better understanding of the effects of
                fine particles on human health, including their causes
                and mechanisms, as well as the species and sources of
                PM2.5, the EPA will continue to sponsor
                research, particularly in these areas. Second, the
                Administrator of the EPA will promptly initiate a new
                review of the scientific criteria on the effects of
                airborne particles on human health and the environment.
                Within 90 days, the EPA will develop and provide to
                CASAC a plan and proposed schedule for this review to
                assure that the review is completed within 5 years. The
                plan and schedule will be published in the Federal
                Register. Thus, by July 2002, the Agency will have
                determined, based on data available from its review,
                whether to revise or maintain the standards. This
                determination will have been made before any areas have
                been designated nonattainment under the PM2.5
                standards and before imposition of any new controls
                related to the PM2.5 standards.

                Implementation of New PM2.5 NAAQS

                As set forth in the EPA's final action regarding PM,
                the EPA is establishing a new indicator for fine
                particles (i.e., PM2.5) and promulgating new
                PM2.5 standards. Monitoring and planning
                will be required before control measures to address
                these standards would be required. Therefore, the first
                priority for implementing them is establishment of a
                comprehensive monitoring network to determine ambient
                fine particle concentrations across the country. The
                monitoring network will help the EPA and the States
                determine which areas do not meet the new air quality
                standards, what are the major sources of PM2.5
                in various regions, and what action is needed to clean
                up the air. The EPA and the States will consult with
                affected stakeholders on the design of the network and
                will then establish the network, which will consist of
                approximately 1,500 monitors. All monitors will provide
                for limited speciation, or analysis of the chemical
                composition, of the particles measured. At least 50 of
                the monitors will provide for a more comprehensive
                speciation of the particles. The EPA will work with
                states to deploy the PM2.5 monitoring
                network. Based on the ambient monitoring data we have
                seen to date, these would generally not include
                agricultural areas. The EPA will fund the cost of
                purchasing the monitors, as well as the cost of
                analyzing particles collected at the monitors to
                determine their chemical composition.

                Because the EPA is establishing standards for a new
                indicator for PM (i.e., PM2.5), it is
                critical to develop the best information possible
                before attainment and nonattainment designation
                decisions are made. Three calendar years of Federal
                reference method monitoring data will be used to

[[Page 38428]]

                whether areas meet or do not meet the PM2.5
                standards. Three years of data will be available from
                the earliest monitors in the spring of 2001, and 3
                years of data will be available from all monitors in
                2004. Following this monitoring schedule and allowing
                time for data analysis, Governors and the EPA will not
                be able to make the first determinations as to which
                areas should be designated nonattainment until at least
                2002, 5 years from now. The Clean Air Act, however,
                requires that the EPA make designation determinations
                (i.e., attainment, nonattainment, or unclassifiable)
                within 2 to 3 years of revising a NAAQS. To fulfill
                this requirement, in 1999 the EPA will issue
                ``unclassifiable'' designations for PM2.5.
                These designations will not trigger the planning or
                control requirements of part D of Title I of the Act.

                When the EPA designates PM2.5 nonattainment
                areas pursuant to the Governors' recommendations
                beginning in 2002, areas will be allowed 3 years to
                develop and submit to the EPA pollution control plans
                showing how they will meet the new standards. Areas
                will then have up to 10 years from their redesignation
                to nonattainment to attain the PM2.5
                standards with the possibility of two 1-year

                In developing strategies for attaining the PM2.5
                standards, it is important to focus on measures that
                decrease emissions that contribute to regional
                pollution. Available information indicates that nearly
                one-third of the areas projected not to meet the new
                PM2.5 standards, primarily in the Eastern
                United States, could come into compliance as a result
                of the regional SO2 emission reductions
                already mandated under the Clean Air Act's acid rain
                program, which will be fully implemented between 2000
                and 2010. Similarly, the Grand Canyon Visibility
                Transport Commission, consisting of Western States and
                tribes, committed to reducing regional emissions of
                PM2.5 precursors (sulfates, nitrates, and
                organics) to improve visibility across the Colorado

                As detailed PM2.5 air quality data and data
                on the chemical composition of PM2.5 in
                different areas become available, the EPA will work
                with the States to analyze regional strategies that
                could reduce PM2.5 levels. If further cost-
                effective regional reductions will help areas meet the
                new standard, the EPA will encourage States to work
                together to use a cap-and-trade approach similar to
                that used to curb acid rain. This acid rain program
                delivered environmental benefits at a greatly reduced

                Given the regional dimensions of the PM2.5
                problem, local governments and local businesses should
                not be required to undertake unnecessary planning and
                local regulatory measures when the problem requires
                action on a regional basis. Therefore, as long as the
                States are doing their part to carry out regional
                reduction programs, the areas that would attain the
                PM2.5 standards based on full implementation
                of the acid rain program would not face new local
                requirements. Early identification of other regional
                strategies could also assist local areas in completing
                their programs to attain the PM2.5 standards
                after those areas have been designated nonattainment.

                The EPA will also encourage States to coordinate their
                PM2.5 control strategy development and
                efforts to protect regional visibility. Visibility
                monitoring and data analysis will support both
                PM2.5 implementation and the visibility

                Implementation of Revised PM10 NAAQS

                In its rule, the EPA is revising the current set of
                PM10 standards. Given that health effects
                from coarse particles are still of concern, the overall
                goal during this transition period is to ensure that
                PM10 control measures remain in place to
                maintain the progress that has been achieved toward
                attainment of the current PM10 NAAQS (and
                which provides benefits for PM2.5) and
                protection of public health.

                To ensure that this goal is met, the existing PM10
                NAAQS will continue to apply until certain critical
                actions by the EPA, and by States and local agencies,
                have been taken to sustain the progress already made.
                For areas

[[Page 38429]]

                not attaining the existing PM10 NAAQS when
                the revised standards go into effect, those standards
                remain in effect until the EPA has completed a section
                172(e) rulemaking to prevent backsliding. The EPA will
                propose this rulemaking in the Fall of 1997. For areas
                attaining the existing PM10 NAAQS, the EPA
                will retain the existing PM10 NAAQS until
                the State submits and the EPA approves the section 110
                SIP which States are required to submit within 3 years
                of a NAAQS revision. Once those areas have an approved
                SIP, the EPA will take action so the standard no longer
                applies. In addition, the EPA will take action within 3
                years to designate areas for the revised PM10

                Cost-Effective Implementation Strategies

                There is a strong desire to drive the development of
                new technologies with the potential of greater emission
                reduction at less cost. It was agreed that $10,000 per
                ton of emission reduction is the high end of the range
                of reasonable cost to impose on sources. Consistent
                with the State's ultimate responsibility to attain the
                standards, the EPA will encourage the States to design
                strategies for attaining the PM and ozone standards
                that focus on getting low cost reductions and limiting
                the cost of control to under $10,000 per ton for all
                sources. Market-based strategies can be used to reduce
                compliance costs. The EPA will encourage the use of
                concepts such as a Clean Air Investment Fund, which
                would allow sources facing control costs higher than
                $10,000 a ton for any of these pollutants to pay a set
                annual amount per ton to fund cost-effective emissions
                reductions from non-traditional and small sources.
                Compliance strategies like this will likely lower the
                costs of attaining the standards through more efficient
                allocation, minimize the regulatory burden for small
                and large pollution sources, and serve to stimulate
                technology innovation as well.

                Additional Future Activities and Coordination with
                Other Federal Departments and Agencies

                The approaches outlined above for implementation of the
                current and new ozone standards will be developed in
                the future in much greater detail. In order to ensure
                that the final details are practical, incorporate
                common sense, and provide the appropriate steps toward
                cleaning the air, input is needed from many
                stakeholders such as representatives of State and local
                governments, industry, environmental groups, and
                Federal agencies. The EPA will continue seeking such
                advice from a range of stakeholders and, after
                evaluating their input, propose the necessary guidance
                to make these approaches work. Moreover, the EPA will
                continue to work with a number of Federal agencies to
                ensure that those agencies comply with these new
                standards in cost-effective, common sense ways. The
                guidance and rules (e.g., revisions to NSR and
                conformity) will be completed by the end of 1998.

                The EPA will continue to work with the Small Business
                Administration (SBA) because small businesses are
                particularly concerned about the potential impact
                resulting from future control measures to meet the
                revised PM and ozone standards. The EPA, in partnership
                with SBA, will work with the States to include in their
                SIPs flexible regulatory alternatives that minimize the
                economic impact and paperwork burden on small
                businesses to the greatest possible degree consistent
                with public health protection.

                The EPA and the Department of Defense will continue to
                work towards assuring that the CAA's general conformity
                provisions are applied appropriately so as to maintain
                the air quality benefits of this requirement consistent
                with the Department's goals for cost-saving
                consolidation of the defense infrastructure and the
                economic viability for civilian use of former military
                bases, in support of base realignment and closure

[[Page 38430]]

                In addition, understanding that critical training using
                smoke and obscurants must continue to ensure the
                training and readiness of the military, the EPA will
                work with the Department of Defense to develop a policy
                that ensures that a local area will not be redesignated
                to nonattainment solely on the basis of the use of
                obscurants or smoke for such purposes. While there is a
                need to keep the public informed of violations of air
                quality standards, if any were to occur, there is no
                need to curtail the training or limit it to certain
                weather conditions.

                The EPA will also work closely with the Department of
                Agriculture and the Agriculture Air Quality Task Force
                on any agricultural issues associated with the ozone
                and PM standards. By establishing new standards for
                particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in
                diameter (PM2.5), as opposed to tightening
                the existing standards for particles smaller than 10
                micrometers (PM10), the EPA is actually
                focusing regulatory attention away from farming and
                tilling issues. Indeed, soils and agriculture comprise
                a much smaller portion of the PM2.5 problem
                than they do of the PM10 problem. The EPA
                will issue guidance to the States to ensure that in
                meeting the PM2.5 standards they focus their
                control strategies on sources of fine particles, rather
                than coarse particles (those particles larger than

                Finally, the EPA will continue to work with the
                interagency group addressing fire and air quality
                issues. The EPA recognizes the inevitability of fire,
                and the important role of fire in natural systems. The
                interagency group will develop policies and practices
                to assure compatibility between fire and air quality
                programs consistent with public health, safety, and
                environmental protection.

[[Page 38431]]

                Appendix 1

                Interagency Research Program

                The EPA has concluded that the current scientific
                knowledge provides a strong basis for the revised ozone
                and PM10 standards and the new PM2.5
                standards. However, for both pollutants there exist
                uncertainties about the health effects and their causes
                that can benefit from further study. The complex
                chemistry of their formation and the potential for the
                regional transport of their precursor pollutants and
                ozone and PM also needs to be better understood to
                design effective control strategies to reduce their
                concentrations in the ambient air. The research program
                is structured to prioritize those projects that ensure
                research activities are focused on high-priority topics
                and that the research carried out by various agencies
                is both complementary and timely. The EPA will reach
                out to form partnerships with the private sector and
                State and local governments in performing the research
                wherever possible.

                Particulate Matter Research

                As discussed elsewhere, the EPA will complete another
                full scientific and technical review of the PM
                standards by 2002. Simultaneous with the planning for
                the current criteria review in 1993, the EPA began a
                process of increasing emphasis on PM research. As
                discussed above, commenters on the proposed PM NAAQS
                also expressed significant concerns about the science.
                The steps discussed below are intended to address the
                concerns raised by the commenters.

                Based on the recently completed comprehensive
                scientific review, the EPA is again reassessing its
                research priorities to address the most recent
                understanding of these uncertainties with the
                development of two documents, entitled PM Research
                Needs for Human Health Risk Assessment and ORD PM
                Research Program Strategy. These documents are designed
                to highlight significant health research needs and EPA/
                ORD's strategy to address a subset of those needs as
                well as research needs for implementing the standards.
                Both documents were reviewed by the Clean Air
                Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) in a November
                1996 meeting, and are currently undergoing revisions to
                address CASAC comments.

                These documents, in turn, will help to guide an
                expansion of an ongoing government-wide effort to
                target and coordinate Federal research on particulate
                matter. The EPA, in partnership with other Federal
                agencies, will develop a greatly expanded coordinated
                interagency PM research program. The program will
                contribute to expanding the science associated with
                particulate matter health effects, as well as
                developing improved monitoring methods and cost-
                effective mitigation strategies. For example, the
                Department of Health and Human Services is conducting
                research on respiratory disease and could undertake
                surveillance of PM-related health effects. Significant
                emphasis will be placed on coordinating research on
                health effects, biological mechanism causing effects,
                monitoring, source-receptor relationships, speciation
                of PM, identification of sources, control technologies
                and regional transport for particulate matter with
                corresponding research on ozone and other related
                pollutants including regional haze. To assist State and
                local efforts in completing planning requirements and
                reducing PM, the EPA will work cooperatively with the
                Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense,
                Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, and
                other affected Federal agencies to refine existing,
                limited analytical models for PM10 and to
                develop new reliable predictive models for

                Tropospheric (Ground Level) Ozone Research

                To ensure that the ozone NAAQS and their implementation
                continue to be based on the best available science, the
                EPA will continue its research efforts on tropospheric
                or ground level ozone. As with the setting and
                implementation of virtually all health-based
                environmental standards, there remain scientific
                uncertainties associated with the effects of ozone and
                the means of reducing them. The EPA has participated in
                an intergovernmental

[[Page 38432]]

                public/private partnership called the North American
                Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO) that
                involves a coordinated effort to identify and address
                key issues in the emissions, transport, and mitigation
                of photochemical pollutants. Further, with the
                completion of the ozone Criteria Document, the EPA has
                reassessed the uncertainties and research needs on the
                health and ecological effects of ozone at workshops
                held in March and May 1997, respectively. The EPA is
                currently developing a health and ecological effects
                research needs document for ozone, which will be
                submitted for review by CASAC.

                In addition, the EPA will continue broader efforts to
                coordinate Federal research on tropospheric ozone. The
                public/private NARSTO partnership is a model
                cooperative effort already begun in the area of
                atmospheric processes and risk management. NARSTO's
                membership spans government, utilities and other
                industries, and the academic community--all following a
                single national research agenda. The EPA will also work
                in partnership with other Federal agencies to address
                research needs on ozone health and ecological effects.
                For example, the Department of Health and Human
                Services is conducting research on respiratory disease
                and could undertake surveillance of ozone-related
                health effects. These research efforts will be
                coordinated to ensure research activities are focused
                on high-priority topics and that the research carried
                out by various agencies is complementary. Significant
                emphasis will be placed on coordinating both health
                effects, monitoring, source-receptor, and control
                technologies for ozone with corresponding research on
                particulate matter and other related pollutants subject
                to significant regional transport.

[FR Doc. 97-19201
Filed 7-17-97; 12:50pm]
Billing code 6560-50-P

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