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Coast Guard and EPA Approve Use of Dispersant Subsea in Further Effort to Prevent Oil from Reaching U.S. Shoreline / Agencies Reserve Authority to Stop the Use of the Dispersant At Any Time

Release Date: 05/15/2010
Contact Information: Deepwater Horizon Incident Joint Information Center, 985-902-5231, 985-902-524

The U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced they have authorized BP to use dispersants underwater, at the source of the Deepwater Horizon leak. Oil spill dispersants are chemicals that attempt to break down the oil into small drops and prevent it from reaching the surface or the U.S. shoreline. Dispersants are generally less harmful than the highly toxic oil leaking from the source and they biodegrade in a much shorter time span.

The use of the dispersant at the source of the leak represents a novel approach to addressing the significant environmental threat posed by the spill. Preliminary testing results indicate that subsea use of the dispersant is effective at reducing the amount of oil from reaching the surface – and can do so with the use of less dispersant than is needed when the oil does reach the surface. This is an important step to reduce the potential for damage from oil reaching fragile wetlands and coastal areas.

“We will continue our relentless efforts to secure the source of the spill. In the meantime, we will employ every available technique we can to minimize the environmental impact on coastal habitats, communities and the marine ecosystem. This requires a responsible assessment of the risks and benefits of specific tactics,” said Coast Guard Admiral Thad W. Allen, the national incident commander for the spill.

“Based on the scientific analysis of the EPA and NOAA and review by the National Response Team, it has been determined that the use of dispersants at the subsea source is the prudent and responsible action to take along with other tactics including surface dispersant, skimming and controlled burns.”

“We believe that the underwater use of dispersants could lessen the overall impact of the spill,” said EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson. “Dispersants are not the silver bullet. They are used to move us towards the lesser of two difficult environmental outcomes. Until the flow of oil is stemmed, we must continue to take any responsible action that will reduce the impact of the spill, and that is what we are doing.”

This course of action was decided upon with thorough evaluation and consideration of many factors as well as consultation with stakeholders. Because subsea use of dispersants is a novel approach, several tests were done to determine if the dispersant would be effective in breaking up the oil and helping to control the leaks.

While BP pursues the use of subsea dispersants, the federal government will require regular analysis of its effectiveness and impact on the environment, water and air quality, and human health through a rigorous monitoring program. EPA’s directive to BP, including the monitoring plan the company must adhere to in order to ensure the protection of the environment and public health, is publicly available at

The federal government will work with caution and strong oversight and reserves the right to discontinue the use of this dispersant method if any negative impacts on the environment outweigh the benefits.

For information about the response effort, visit

Key contact numbers

Report oiled shoreline or request volunteer information: (866) 448-5816

Submit alternative response technology, services or products: (281) 366-5511

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