1994 Midwest Oak Savanna Conferences
RESEARCH QUESTIONS FOR RESTORATION OF OAK SAVANNAS AND WOODLANDS
Numbers to the left of the original questions are after prioritization.
4 1. How does the distribution of herbaceous species relate to canopy closure.
30 2. What were the mycorrhizal and fungal relationships in oak savannas?
7 3. Light requirements of flora and fauna.
29 4. Dominance of root systems.
22 5. Correlation between canopy and basal classification.
31 6. Role of shrubs in savanna.
8 7. How are the edaphic, fire and and successional gradients related to the distribution of community types and species?
12 8. How much and how fast do communities change relative to climatic shifts and succession after fire. What factors are related to community stability?
10 9. How important are the impacts of herbivores on savanna stability and structure (large grazing mammals as well as birds and insects)?
32 10. What is the effect of natural tree mortality, such as from oak decline, and two-lined chestnut borer epidemics, on maintenance of understory species? (Gypsy Moth?)
33 11. How do effects of severe droughts resemble and differ from fire effects? Where cyclic climatic shifts important in maintaining species associated with savannas? To what extent were savannas refugia for survival of prairie, wetland, and woodland species impacted by climactic shifts?
42 12. Can palenology provide additional information on the presettlement composition of oak savannas and the changes that were associated with climactic shifts?
11 13. Topography gives variability. Role in types of species and quality of plants, sunlight, water table, soil formation, temperature and fire history.
9 14. Effect of reintroduction of fire to savanna communities. There is little information on the effect on flora and fauna. There needs to be long-term studies and permanent study plots.
19 15. Research both natural and human disturbance on savannas.
20 16. What was the role of native Americans with respect to savannas?
43 17. How have oak savannas changed through time?
23 18. Identify which species are dependent on meta-population dynamics for their persistence, thus requiring large preserves for viable populations.
35 19. What is required to create effective migration and dispersal corridors between reserves? For which type of organisms must the corridors be their optimal habitat. Research the relevance of dispersal for rare species to identify barriers to dispersal.
24 20. What are the landscape scale relationships between species and communities? How much of the diversity is related to mosaic of communities? What are the optimal mixes of community types and conditions for critical species?
34 21. How large an area is needed to support viable populations of different species?
38 22. Regional perspective on patterns of savanna distribution; dominant plant members and possible indicator species or ecological groups; use serial photographs and land surveys.
13 23. Standard classification system. Add soil moisture and chemistry.
17 24. What changes in species composition occur across the savanna portion of the vegetation continuum?
18 25. Research the wetland/prairie/savanna interface and savanna/woodland interface, then integrate lists (plants and animals). From these lists create indicator and dominant species lists.
2 26. Creation of insect species lists.
25 27. What features distinguish oak savanna ecosystems (soil characteristics, hydrology, sun/shade patterns, topography, animals, geologic history, land use).
21 28. What geographic areas are oak savannas. Circulate lists/maps for comment and consolidation. Store in database, develop indicator species and structures.
16 29. What is the difference between a woodland and a savanna?
26 30. What are the dynamic characteristics of oak savanna ecosystems?
41 31. Are different definitions in different states the result of geographic variation of the ecosystem?
1 32. List high quality sites.
27 33. What are the habitat requirements of the rare species found in savannas? Do some require both open and savanna habitat for persistence? What are the distributions and dynamics of rare species along various environmental gradients (light, soil, fire, hydrology, litter)?
40 34. Determine the range of morphological and genetic variability within species geographic and ecological gradients where relevant. This is relevant to determining population protection priorities.
3 35. Concentrate on species for whom system recovery should make a difference. What plants and animals would be most significantly impacted by a recovery plan (savanna-specific species). How to get a handle/focus on which species will be most affected? Positive vs. adverse impacts. What species are out there that we don't even know about? Role of Heritage Programs.
14 36. Determine whether different management approaches to restoring and maintaining savanna influence the diversity of species at a site? Stated differently, do some management regimes favor some types or guilds of species over others? Can biodiversity be maximized?
39 37. Can land management techniques be developed that will allow sustainable use of savanna/woodland resources and protect rare and endangered species?
6 38. Species response to different fire regimes (invertebrates).
5 39. Effects of management on insects.
28 40. Animal/plant reintroduction experiments are needed.
36 41. What habitats are needed by animals during restoration? What should be introduced or reintroduced?
15 42. What are the effects of non-oak trees in oak savanna?
37 43. Does animal use differ between high-quality natural sites and restored sites.